Power Mosfets Theory And Applications Pdf Download BEST
The power MOSFET is the most common power semiconductor device in the world, due to its low gate drive power, fast switching speed, easy advanced paralleling capability, wide bandwidth, ruggedness, easy drive, simple biasing, ease of application, and ease of repair. In particular, it is the most widely used low-voltage (less than 200 V) switch. It can be found in a wide range of applications, such as most power supplies, DC-to-DC converters, low-voltage motor controllers, and many other applications.
Power Mosfets Theory And Applications Pdf Download
LDMOS are power MOSFETs with a lateral structure. They are mainly used in high-end audio power amplifiers, and RF power amplifiers in wireless cellular networks, such as 2G, 3G, and 4G. Their advantage is a better behaviour in the saturated region (corresponding to the linear region of a bipolar junction transistor) than the vertical MOSFETs. Vertical MOSFETs are designed for switching applications, so they are only used in On or Off states.
Alternating current is used to transport electric power all across the electric grid, from generators to end users. An alternating current (AC) circuit can be configured as a single-phase or a three-phase system. Single-phase systems are simpler, and can deliver enough power to supply an entire house, but three-phase systems can deliver much more power in a more stable way, which is why they are frequently used to supply power for industrial applications.
Perhaps the most popular and most commonly used Semiconductor Switching Device is the MOSFET. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) is a unipolar and high frequency switching device. It is most commonly used switching device is power electronic applications. It has three terminals namely drain (output), source (common) and gate (input).
A Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) is one of the most widely used high speed switching device for power control applications. It is a unidirectional device as a diode, consisting of three terminals, namely anode, cathode and gate.
Wireless power transmission was conceptualized nearly a century ago. Certain achievements made to date have made power harvesting a reality, capable of providing alternative sources of energy. This review provides a summ ary of radio frequency (RF) power harvesting technologies in order to serve as a guide for the design of RF energy harvesting units. Since energy harvesting circuits are designed to operate with relatively small voltages and currents, they rely on state-of-the-art electrical technology for obtaining high efficiency. Thus, comprehensive analysis and discussions of various designs and their tradeoffs are included. Finally, recent applications of RF power harvesting are outlined.
A summary of the present sources of energy available for power harvesting is shown in Table 1. The data in Table 1 was collected from references [18, 19]. In comparison with thermal or kinetic energy, electromagnetic energy is not limited by space or time. The RF wave is available both indoors and outdoors, in rural and urban areas, throughout the day. Despite its low power density in the environment, an intentional source can be added for more efficient power transmission and a boosting circuit can be built to suit the requirements of the load application. This feature promotes research to realize RF WPH technology through applications such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT).
There are various parameters that need to be evaluated, which decide the performance of a WPH design. Evaluation merits change depending on different applications. Nevertheless, critical values such as efficiency, sensitivity, operation distance, output power are defined as standards to make comparisons. However, tradeoffs exist between these values such as operation distance and overall efficiency. Moreover, besides this merit, other manufacturing auxiliary factors like low cost, maturity of fabrication process, and bulk manufacturing availability are also paramount.
Usually, the outcome of a WPH system is DC power, which is characterized by load voltage VDD and current IDD. Measuring open-load voltage demonstrates the performance of WPH in general since VDD and IDD depend on load impedance. If the load is a sensor, VDD is more important than IDD while in applications like electrolysis or LED, current is the dominant parameter.
where PT is the transmitted power by the antenna and GT is the transmitting antenna gain. It is known that an ideal isotropic antenna has GT = 0 dBi. The aforementioned formula is also applicable to receiving antennas. Specifically, for power harvesting applications, a receiving antenna, which constitutes a rectifier, is called a rectenna.
Communication antennas have been studied for decades. However, power-harvesting antennas are currently in the developmental stage. At first, antenna classification was based on design characteristics and applications. It originally included wire antennas, aperture antennas, printed planar antennas, and reflector antennas. An illustration of some examples of antennas is shown in Fig. 4. To date, the growth in technology has paved the way for a variety of antenna design and fabrication methods for making it more compact and mature.
The plate antennas are popular and have many applications [27, 34, 38]; on-chip antennas are preferred for small and compact applications. Recently, many publications addressed wide-band and multi-band antennas. It has been proven that narrow-band antennas offer high energy conversion efficiencies but can only retrieve a limited amount of energy. On the other hand, wide-band or multi-band frequency antennas can retrieve more RF energy in space. However, the tradeoffs are low overall efficiency and large aperture. In , antennas with a resonance frequency of 4.9 and 5.9 GHz were designed with PCEs of 65.2 and 64.8%, respectively. Further work by Lu et al.  on polarization antennas supports the assertion that expanding the bandwidth of an antenna leads to increasing the amount of power harvested. In this work, the demonstration of broadband polarization antennas with three separate modes allows the antenna to operate in a wider range of frequencies. One common mechanism in the aforementioned works is the control of the antenna configuration by switching the diodes on and off, thus altering its resonant frequencies. However, since it uses separate modes for different frequencies, this antenna is not able to simultaneously resonate at two frequencies. On the other hand, the antenna presented in  is capable of operating at 2.45 and 5.8 GHz, simultaneously, providing 2.6 V output with a PCE of 65% and power density of 10 mW/cm2.
In low-power consumption electrical systems, power leakage during transmission may lead to energy insufficiency. In these circumstances, adding an impedance matching network (IMN) ensures that the maximum power transfers between the RF source and load. For WPH applications, the receiving antenna is considered as the source while the rectifier/voltage multiplier is considered as the load. It is acknowledged that in DC, power transfer is optimum when the resistances of the source and load are indistinguishable. In an RF circuit, the impedance is referred to instead of resistance. An impedance mismatch between the source and load creates reflected power flow in the circuit that lowers the efficiency of the system. As its name indicates, the IMN ensures that the impedance of the source and load are identical by adding reactive components in between.
The most fundamental topology of the rectifier is the half-wave rectifier that comprises of a single diode D1 (Fig. 6a). When AC voltage transfers through D1, only the positive cycle remains and the negative cycle is cutoff; thus, it diminishes half of the AC power. Moreover, the output Vout is discontinuous since the negative cycle is cutoff. Despite its simplicity, a half-wave rectifier is usually inadequate for common applications. Hence, a full-wave rectifier is more preferable. The circuit design of the full-wave rectifier is shown in Fig. 6b. During the first negative cycle of AC input, diode D1 is conductive and capacitor C1 is charged to the corresponding energy level of Vpeak of the input. Then, at the next positive cycle, diode D1 is blocked, diode D2 is conductive so that capacitor C2 is also charged. In consequence, the output Vout would see two capacitors in series (each one is storing a voltage of Vpeak). Thus, Vout is twice Vpeak. Therefore, this topology is more stable and efficient than the half-wave rectifier. There is also a bridge rectifier that rectifies both positive and negative cycles of the AC input but retains Vout = Vpeak by alternatively blocking pairs of diodes D1, D4 and D2, D3 (Fig. 6c).
This paper summarized the state-of-the-art of RF power harvesting technology in recent years. This technology will play a key role in replacing batteries in the near future. Some applications of RF power harvesting have been practically realized. A basic RF power-harvesting unit includes three main modules: the antenna, IMN, and voltage multiplier. The total efficiency of the system is dictated by the harmony in the integration of all the modules. The designs and principles of each module were also discussed in the paper.
The RF electromagnetic waves are harmless, abundant in space, and is able to penetrate through soft tissues. Those are properties that make RF electromagnetic waves an alternative source of energy to replace batteries in many applications. Particularly, RF power harvesting supports low-power medical and healthcare devices and facilitates the development of WSNs and IoT by providing mobility of use. Additionally, the progress in integrating RF power harvesting circuits into CMOS technology creates a completely wireless SoC.